## Naive Bayes Tutorial (in 5 easy steps)

First we will develop each piece of the algorithm in this section, then we will tie all of the elements together into a working implementation that can be applied to the real dataset.

This Naive Bayes tutorial is broken down into 5 parts:

• Step 1: Separate By Class.
• Step 2: Summarize Dataset.
• Step 3: Summarize Data By Class.
• Step 4: Gaussian Probability Density Function.
• Step 5: Class Probabilities.

These steps will provide the foundation that you need to implement Naive Bayes from scratch and apply it to your own predictive modeling problems.

Note: This tutorial assumes that you are using Python 3

Note: if you are using Python 2.7, you must change all calls to the items() function on dictionary objects to iteritems().

### Step 1: Separate By Class

We will need to calculate the probability of data by the class they belong to, the so-called base rate.

This means that we will first need to separate our training data by class. A relatively straightforward operation.

We can create a dictionary object where each key is the class value and then add a list of all the records as the value in the dictionary.

Below is a function named separate_by_class() that implements this approach. It assumes that the last column in each row is the class value.

We can contrive a small dataset to test out this function.

We can plot this dataset and use separate colors for each class.

Scatter Plot of Small Contrived Dataset for Testing the Naive Bayes Algorithm

Putting this all together, we can test our separate_by_class() function on the contrived dataset.

Running the example sorts observations in the dataset by their class value, then prints the class value followed by all identified records.

Next we can start to develop the functions needed to collect statistics.

### Step 2: Summarize Dataset

We need two statistics from a given set of data.

We%u2019ll see how these statistics are used in the calculation of probabilities in a few steps. The two statistics we require from a given dataset are the mean and the standard deviation (average deviation from the mean).

The mean is the average value and can be calculated as:

• mean = sum(x)/n * count(x)

Where x is the list of values or a column we are looking.

Below is a small function named mean() that calculates the mean of a list of numbers.

The sample standard deviation is calculated as the mean difference from the mean value. This can be calculated as:

• standard deviation = sqrt((sum i to N (x_i %u2013 mean(x))^2) / N-1)

You can see that we square the difference between the mean and a given value, calculate the average squared difference from the mean, then take the square root to return the units back to their original value.

Below is a small function named standard_deviation() that calculates the standard deviation of a list of numbers. You will notice that it calculates the mean. It might be more efficient to calculate the mean of a list of numbers once and pass it to the standard_deviation() function as a parameter. You can explore this optimization if you%u2019re interested later.

We require the mean and standard deviation statistics to be calculated for each input attribute or each column of our data.

We can do that by gathering all of the values for each column into a list and calculating the mean and standard deviation on that list. Once calculated, we can gather the statistics together into a list or tuple of statistics. Then, repeat this operation for each column in the dataset and return a list of tuples of statistics.

Below is a function named summarize_dataset() that implements this approach. It uses some Python tricks to cut down on the number of lines required.

The first trick is the use of the zip() function that will aggregate elements from each provided argument. We pass in the dataset to the zip() function with the * operator that separates the dataset (that is a list of lists) into separate lists for each row. The zip() function then iterates over each element of each row and returns a column from the dataset as a list of numbers. A clever little trick.

We then calculate the mean, standard deviation and count of rows in each column. A tuple is created from these 3 numbers and a list of these tuples is stored. We then remove the statistics for the class variable as we will not need these statistics.

Let%u2019s test all of these functions on our contrived dataset from above. Below is the complete example.

Running the example prints out the list of tuples of statistics on each of the two input variables.

Interpreting the results, we can see that the mean value of X1 is 5.178333386499999 and the standard deviation of X1 is 2.7665845055177263.

Now we are ready to use these functions on each group of rows in our dataset.

### Step 3: Summarize Data By Class

We require statistics from our training dataset organized by class.

Above, we have developed the separate_by_class() function to separate a dataset into rows by class. And we have developed summarize_dataset() function to calculate summary statistics for each column.

We can put all of this together and summarize the columns in the dataset organized by class values.

Below is a function named summarize_by_class() that implements this operation. The dataset is first split by class, then statistics are calculated on each subset. The results in the form of a list of tuples of statistics are then stored in a dictionary by their class value.

Again, let%u2019s test out all of these behaviors on our contrived dataset.

Running this example calculates the statistics for each input variable and prints them organized by class value. Interpreting the results, we can see that the X1 values for rows for class 0 have a mean value of 2.7420144012.

There is one more piece we need before we start calculating probabilities.

### Step 4: Gaussian Probability Density Function

Calculating the probability or likelihood of observing a given real-value like X1 is difficult.

One way we can do this is to assume that X1 values are drawn from a distribution, such as a bell curve or Gaussian distribution.

Gaussian distribution can be summarized using only two numbers: the mean and the standard deviation. Therefore, with a little math, we can estimate the probability of a given value. This piece of math is called a Gaussian Probability Distribution Function (or Gaussian PDF) and can be calculated as:

• f(x) = (1 / sqrt(2 * PI) * sigma) * exp(-((x-mean)^2 / (2 * sigma^2)))

Where sigma is the standard deviation for xmean is the mean for x and PI is the value of pi.

Below is a function that implements this. I tried to split it up to make it more readable.

Let%u2019s test it out to see how it works. Below are some worked examples.

Running it prints the probability of some input values. You can see that when the value is 1 and the mean and standard deviation is 1 our input is the most likely (top of the bell curve) and has the probability of 0.39.

We can see that when we keep the statistics the same and change the x value to 1 standard deviation either side of the mean value (2 and 0 or the same distance either side of the bell curve) the probabilities of those input values are the same at 0.24.

Now that we have all the pieces in place, let%u2019s see how we can calculate the probabilities we need for the Naive Bayes classifier.

### Step 5: Class Probabilities

Now it is time to use the statistics calculated from our training data to calculate probabilities for new data.

Probabilities are calculated separately for each class. This means that we first calculate the probability that a new piece of data belongs to the first class, then calculate probabilities that it belongs to the second class, and so on for all the classes.

The probability that a piece of data belongs to a class is calculated as follows:

• P(class|data) = P(X|class) * P(class)

You may note that this is different from the Bayes Theorem described above.

The division has been removed to simplify the calculation.

This means that the result is no longer strictly a probability of the data belonging to a class. The value is still maximized, meaning that the calculation for the class that results in the largest value is taken as the prediction. This is a common implementation simplification as we are often more interested in the class prediction rather than the probability.

The input variables are treated separately, giving the technique it%u2019s name %u201Cnaive%u201C. For the above example where we have 2 input variables, the calculation of the probability that a row belongs to the first class 0 can be calculated as:

• P(class=0|X1,X2) = P(X1|class=0) * P(X2|class=0) * P(class=0)

Now you can see why we need to separate the data by class value. The Gaussian Probability Density function in the previous step is how we calculate the probability of a real value like X1 and the statistics we prepared are used in this calculation.

Below is a function named calculate_class_probabilities() that ties all of this together.

It takes a set of prepared summaries and a new row as input arguments.

First the total number of training records is calculated from the counts stored in the summary statistics. This is used in the calculation of the probability of a given class or P(class) as the ratio of rows with a given class of all rows in the training data.

Next, probabilities are calculated for each input value in the row using the Gaussian probability density function and the statistics for that column and of that class. Probabilities are multiplied together as they accumulated.

This process is repeated for each class in the dataset.

Finally a dictionary of probabilities is returned with one entry for each class.

Let%u2019s tie this together with an example on the contrived dataset.

The example below first calculates the summary statistics by class for the training dataset, then uses these statistics to calculate the probability of the first record belonging to each class.